Appendicitis

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Appendicitis is a common disease, which affects about 7% of the population worldwide. The disease usually occurs between 10 – 30 years but can occur at any age.

The appendix is inflammation of the intestinal appendix and affects the mucous (mucosa), lymphoid tissue and muscle layer. The appendix is at the beginning of the large intestine, in the lower right area of the abdomen.

Appendicitis causes and diagnosisThe problem of the appendix is not the inflammation of the appendix itself, but if we let the picture evolve, the appendix may become necrotic and not literally inside the abdomen. This would cause an emergency situation, peritonitis, with great risk to the life of the patient.

Stages

Based on the histological findings and the macroscopic appearance, there are 4 stages of appendicitis.

1. Catarrhal appendicitis: When the appendix light is obstructed, the mucus that secrets, as it secretes any part of the intestine, can not flow freely and begins to accumulate inside. At this stage, the appendix has the normal outward appearance and only the inflammation can be identified.

2. Phlegmonous or Fibrinous appendicitis: little by little the appendix becomes distended by increasing its internal pressure. There comes a time when the pressure is so great that the blood can not properly irrigate the appendix. At this stage, the appendix appears as inflammatory, red and enlarged.

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3. Gangrenous appendicitis: the walls of the appendix are weakened, both by the lack of snaggle irrigation and by the increase in internal pressure. There are parts that begin to necrotic and become black and can secrete pus.

4. Perforated appendicitis: The walls finally rupture and release all pus and feces into the interior of the abdominal cavity, resulting in peritonitis.

All these stages occur in the course of 24-36 hours from the start of the process in adults.

Causes

Inflammation of the appendix is usually the result of an obstruction, causing an infection. One end of the appendix is open at the point where it reaches the large intestine.

Appendicitis Symptoms and treatment tipsAppendicitis occurs when the appendix is obstructed by a hard mass of feces or by a foreign body in the intestine. This obstruction can directly cause inflammation of the appendix and may promote bacterial infection.

Less common causes of appendix include fruit and vegetable seeds, intestinal worms and barium thickening caused by previous exposure to X-rays. The appendix is sometimes caused by a tumor (cancer) to the colon.

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Symptoms

Early symptoms of acute appendicitis may include:

  1. Constipation, diarrhea or gas.
  2. A dull pain starting in the peri-umbilical region, turning into a sharp pain in the lower-right part of the abdomen.
  3. A pain that moves, in 50 to 60% of the cases.
  4. Loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting.
  5. Low fever (37 ° C to 39 ° C).

Symptoms of more advanced appendix include:

  1. Bloating and stiffness of the abdomen.
  2. A pain on the right side of the abdomen produced by a pressure on the left side.

List summarizes the “classic symptoms” that are common in adolescents and young adults. In older adults, there is less pain.

Diagnosis

Because the symptoms of appendicitis may be similar to those of other medical conditions, it is not easy to make a diagnosis of this disease.

Appendicitis diagnosis and treatmentThe pediatrician will scan the patient’s abdomen for signs of pain or areas sensitive to pressure and touch, and will also require blood and urine tests, chest and chest x-rays, and a computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdominal area.

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Practical advice

If one of your loved ones complains of abdominal pain, nausea, and moderate fever:

  • Leave him on an empty stomach waiting for a medical opinion.
  • Do not try to bring down the temperature with Antipyretics or fresh clothes.
  • Do not try to diminish the pain with an ice pocket or hot-water bottle, masking the signs can only delay the diagnosis and treatment.
  • Call your doctor or doctor on call immediately.

Treatment tips

Surgery is the only treatment for acute appendicitis. The appendix surgery is commonly done by two procedures.

  1. Open appendectomy: This is the traditional way to remove an infected appendix. It consists of making a cut in the skin of the abdomen and cutting the appendix of the large intestine to remove it from the body.
  2. Laparoscopic appendectomy: Laparoscopic surgery uses a small video camera (laparoscope) that allows the surgeon to see the patient’s interior, making small incisions.

Depending on the type of intervention, some people may leave their bed on the day of the operation. In most cases, the surgical incision will heal within a few days or a week.

Appendicitis in Urdu

Appendicitis in Urdu

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